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館藏資料:
識別號0000087012
題名人工增雨技術研發評估計畫(1/2) The development and evaluation of artificial rainfall enhancement techniques(1/2)
作者
ISBN9789860282283
出版項
台北市 : , 10006
版本項初版
標題項
分類號328.89
文件編號10020218 162
編號(GPN/EBN)1010002002
委辦計畫編號MOEAWRA0990038
中文摘要台灣近年水資源供需問題日漸嚴峻,開發水庫或地下水不易,但各類用水不斷增加,供需之間日漸失衡。加上降雨異常頻率增加,雨季時降雨強度增加,旱季時不降雨天數拉長,增加水資源調度作業的困難。以石門水庫為例,其蓄水量約為2.34億立方公尺,但年出水量約達9億立方公尺,亦即每年需空庫重滿四次,所依賴者為1~2月的春雨、5月的梅雨、7月的雷雨及8~11月的颱風雨,若其中某幾次的降雨失常,即有供水短缺的危險,以水資源供應觀點而言,台灣地區水資源供水的可靠度較低。 實施人造雨改造降雨環境、增加降雨量,除作為緊急因應乾旱之防救措施外,亦是提高水源供應可靠度的方法;加上近年乾旱頻常,民眾在每次旱象消息公佈後,亦會促請政府實施人造雨作業以增加降雨。 目前本署可用之地面造雨器數量已增加至三十二部,配合已有之碘化銀溶液鋼瓶,已在石門及翡翠水庫集水區增設多處地面造雨站,但地面造雨作業並非偶一為之即有成果,以國外實例,人工增雨必須長期運作,在適當的氣象條件下實施始見成效。 由於碘化銀造雨較適合於冷雲時使用,倘天候條件為暖雲時,則必須使用氯化鈣等造雨劑,始得發揮人工增雨之效果。因此確有開發研究氯化鈣造雨劑之必要,以利在不同天候條件下,均能造雨增加降雨機率。
英文摘要To develop the abaility and technology with respect to rainfall enhancement and then apply to domestic cloud seeding operation, this project was conducted to improve cloud seeding model and techniques with air-platform, plan the application of semi-air-platform, develop local-produced seeding flares, and propose physical and chemical methods to evaluate the effect of cloud seeding. Theoretical evaluation of the warm-cloud seeding effect with rain embryo spray and condensation nuclei (CN) flares was perfomed using the Bowen and detailed bin model, respectively. The Bowen model result indicated that a ten-thoudand times seeding effect may be obtained if the diameter of rain embryo is reduced to about 100 m, and mau reach even up to 100,000 times under favorable environmental conditions. As for seeding with giant condensation nuclei (GCCN)s, the optimal salt size is 4 to 8 m under a maritime aerosol environment, and from 8 to 10m under a continental aerosol environment. The GCCN seeding effect is more effective when the environment is more polluted as compared to the clean or oceanic backgrounds. These results are important bases for developing domestic warm cloud seeding flares. The simulation result from regional weather model with detail microphysics showed that, due to the presence of ample ice nuclei in the natural atmosphere, cold cloud seeding in Taiwan might reduce total precipitation, whereas using GCCN is less risky unless extremely high concentration of GCCN is used. In addition, conditions suitable for warm cloud seeding is much more frequent that that for cold-cloud seeding in Taiwan. We thus suggest using warm cloud seeding techniques as the main cloud seeding method in Taiwan. As for the task of developing warm-cloud seeding flares, the recipie, including chemical and mixture proportion, as well as the material sources have been identified. Ion composition analysis shows that the domestic flare that we made has similar compositons as the imported ICE flare, and is a potentially more efficient cloud seeding agent. Therefore, our domestic flares possibley can used to replace the ICE flares in the future. We also proposed two solutions for spraying water droplets as rain embryos using the C-130H platform. As for the AS365 helicopter, we have produced finely grinded CaCl2 power and incorporated a powder-spraying machine into a helicopter, whose function has been tested successfully in the Taichung airport. The B2N platform is evaluated and not suggested for future operation due to restrictions by ACC. From the experiment conducted offshore of Taitung, we demonstrated that the firework platform is a plausible platform for ground seeding operation. A set of three methods are sesigned for qualitative evaluation of seeding effect: (1) physical ve rification with the polarizatic radar echo; verification using rainfall time series and spatial distribution, as the effect of ground flare seeding should emerge about 40 to 100 minutes after the release of seeding agent; (3) chemical verification by analyzing chemical composition in the rainwater, including the analysis of seeding material, and the food-dye that we added in the water spray of C-130H seeding. As for a more quantitative evaluation, we will need to rely on randomized seeding design and statistical analysis, which will take a few years to accumulate enough date sample. All these evaluation methods should be used in cloud seeding operation the future.
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