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識別號0000093142
題名都會區地下含水層滯洪效益研究(2/3)--內附光碟=Study on Utilizing Infiltration into Aquifer for Flood Detention in Urban Area(2/3)
作者
出版項
臺中市 : , 10312
版本項初版
分類號443.6
編號(GPN/EBN)10103F0028
委辦計畫編號MOEAWRA1030032
中文摘要研究都會區利用地下含水層滯洪的理論與現地實驗,探討應用於台灣的可行性。 全球氣候變遷,極端降雨事件頻仍發生,以及都會地區的快速發展,人口過度集中,不透水地表面積增加等原因,導致災害的風險與強度增加,都市防洪必須採取多元策略與手段以期妥適因應此一自然與人為所造成的雙重挑戰。一般而言,都市防洪的對象是指短期時間降雨所造成的大量地表水,而其處置的策略則採用工程措施或非工程措施,或二者相互兼用之,以避免或減低洪水災害。另就整體水文循環過程來看,降雨形成地表逕流最終排入海洋,尚有一部份的水量,除蒸發散之外,其餘是透過入滲現象而成為地下水之來源,故地下含水層可視為天然蓄水庫。因此,現代都市防洪策略的發展,除採用傳統工程措施於河川上游興建水庫或在局部地區設置滯洪池等大小規模的人工設施來蓄集地表水或遲滯地表逕流,在受限的都會空間環境中將都會地區之地表水透過適當方法導入地下含水層,調節減少地表逕流進而降低洪災風險,應是一具有應用價值並可兼顧水資源永續利用的重要可研究發展、評估效益之課題。 本研究之目的主要係藉由都會地區地下水層之現地試驗之設計以及地表水文模式與地下水數值模式聯合之應用,以評估當汛期豪大雨事件發生時將地表水透過適當方式補注於都會地區地下含水層之滯洪效益與其可行性,並提出都會地區地下含水層滯洪之適用、應用原則與檢討建議,俾使都市防洪策略擬定時,能有多方面的選擇,以實現都市防洪減災與水資源永續利用相互兼顧的預期目標。
英文摘要Due to climate change, extreme rainfall and typhoon events occur more and more frequently in the recent years. For urban area, risk of flooding increases due to fast development with increasing non-pervious surface and highly concentrated population. In this project, two field experiments were designed and installed. The purposes of the installed facilities are to enhance infiltration capacity of the ground-surface during rainfall events and reduce surface runoff such that the risk of flood can be reduced. A 3-dimentional model for unsaturated soil water (FEMWATER) and a surface water model (SOBEK) are employed to do the verification and simulation of rainfall events. All the above research can provide rules and guidelines for infiltration facilities and suggestions. The benefits of flood reduction can be estimated which also gives multiple options for strategies in urban flooding reduction. The infiltrated water can at the same time recharge the groundwater aquifer such that water resources in urban area can be restored. This is a win-win situation. This year is the secend year of a three-year research. The content includes cases study, reference survey, facilities survey, and test sites selection. Two test sites were chosen as the field experimental sites. One is inside a retention pond in a Taichung industrial district and the other is a side garden besides one research building of the institute of planning & hydraulic research, WCA, MOEA. Basic site information was collected, and field investigation was done. Monitoring instruments were installed which include rain gauges, triangular weirs, Dopple velocimeter, and pressure transducers for groundwater tables and inflowing depth of open channel. According to the field test by double-ring infiltration meter, both initial and stable infiltration rates for site No. 2 are around 1.5cm/hr. For site No.1, the initial infiltration rate is between1.8 to 6.3cm/hr, and the the stable infiltration rate is between 1.0 to 4.5cm/hr. But in the secend year field observation, infiltration rates for the retention pond is 210mm/hr. In the aspect of 3-D modeling by FEMWATER, five parameters were discussed, which are ponding depth, ratio of hydraulic conductivity between the gravel pile and the original soil, penetrating depth of the gravel pile, scale of simulation field to the diameter of the pile, and the distance between two piles. In the aspect of retention-flow modeling by SOBEK, Q-peak reduction for 10-year rainfall is 90%, for 25-year rainfall is 81%. When assuming 1.33cm/hr as the infiltration rate inside the retention pond, the outflow of a 25-yr rainfall from the detention pond is equivalent to a 10-yr rainfall without infiltration.
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