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數位閱讀次數( 49 )
識別號0000093324
題名人工增雨技術精進研發計畫(2/2)(光碟版)The development and improvement of artificial rainfall enhancement techmiques(2/2)
作者
ISBN9789860435443
出版項
台北市 : , 10312
版本項初版
分類號328.89
編號(GPN/EBN)1010302856
委辦計畫編號MOEAWRA1030169
中文摘要近年台灣水資源供需問題趨於嚴峻,水庫開發及地下水汲取不易,但各類用水不斷增加,造成水資源供需日漸失衡。加上降雨異常頻仍,雨季時降雨強度增加,旱季時不降雨天數拉長,增加水資源調度作業的困難。 就水資源供應觀點而論,台灣的水資源供水的可靠度較低,若能進行人工增雨適時增加降水量,除作為緊急因應乾旱之防救措施外,亦是提高水源供應可靠度的方法。目前全球都同樣面臨水資源不均的問題,且有超過25個國家已投入人工增雨之研究和進行常態作業,包括美國、以色列和中國大陸等。最後近十年來國際間人工增雨相關觀測能力和數值模式有顯著的進展,且對其物理過程也有更深的了解,因此各國政府進行人工增雨的作業越趨頻繁,此活動亦積極帶動相關設備和施放技術等工具的改進。 國內過去數十年來亦曾多次進行人工增雨作業,緊急時以空軍飛機進行空中種雲,民國93年中央氣象局也曾雇用北美氣象顧問公司進行空中造雨,惟仍應依國內實際需求,加強在地研發工作,爰辦理本計畫。
英文摘要The uneven distribution of water resources has become a global issue, due to the climatological variability in the temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation, and also the influences of human development. Recently, there are more than 25 countries involving in the researches or operations of artificial precipitation enhancement. In the past few decades, the advancements of instrumental technology and numerical models, as well as the more frequently precipitation enhancement operations conducted, has also promoted the development of equipment and the advancements of operational technique. However, the methods and effectiveness of artificial precipitation enhancement would vary greatly under different geological and meteorological conditions, in which the methods might be suitable for certain places only. With aids of the advances of technique in other countries and the development of local skills, it is imperative improve the methods of conducting precipitation enhancement operation in order to help mitigating the stresses from dwindling water resources in Taiwan. The corresponding fundamental researches and development would also help Taiwan develop technical independency on artificial precipitation enhancement. In present project, a meteorological model that includes detailed cloud microphysics is modified to suit the application for precipitation enhancement, in which include the mechanisms of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), giant CCN (GCCN), and ice nuclei (IN), and the interactions among them. The effectiveness of ice-cloud seeding that involve the implantation of IN, and warm-cloud seeding that involve GCCN, would be evaluated systematically. The current practices of airborne seeding operations that using aircrafts, and also the options of equipment and constitutions, would be experimentally evaluated. Since there are physical weaknesses in the flare developed by other countries for warm-cloud seeding, the present project would develop new seeding flares with higher efficiencies in precipitation enhancement. The evaluations cover the optimal seeding size, chemical constitutions, manufacturing methods, and operational methods. The product would be examined in field tests accompanied with the precipitation enhancement operations. The results in present project include: the development of numerical models for precipitation enhancement needs, the improvement of air-borne seeding operation strategy, the manufacture of self-developed flares for cloud seeding and applying for patents, to apply for patents for the remote control of surface flaring racks, the establishment of international cooperation for artificial precipitation enhancement, and to invite international specialists to provide suggestions for planning field experiments and operations.
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